Missed opportunities to accessing HIV testing and antiretroviral therapy during routine patient-provider encounters in Sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review of the evidence

Background and Objective: The relative balance between Th1 and Th2 cytokines appears crucial in the outcome of infections . We assessed the levels of some proinflammatory Th1 cytokines, interleukin-2 (IL-2) and gamma interferon (IFNc), and anti- inflammatory Th2 cytokines, IL-4 and IL-10 in homozygous haemoglobin (Hb) AA, heterozygous AS genotyped and sickle cell (SS) individuals with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria. METHODS Levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines of 111 children aged 1– 5 years with uncomplicated malaria and 89 healthy controls were determined by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay and haematological parameters were estimated using the automated Swelab counter (Boule Medical Stockholm, Sweden).

Results: Th1 and Th2 cytokine levels were significantly higher in HbAA, HbAS genotyped patients than their respective healthy controls (P < 0.05). IFNc, IL-2 and IL-10 were significantly higher in HbAA than HbAS and HbSS subjects (P < 0.05). The mean haematological parameters (total white cell count, monocyte) of HbSS infected children were significantly higher than that of HbAA and HbAS subjects (P < 0.05), however, their mean packed cell volume was significantly lower compared to others (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION Our results of revealed some stronger cytokine response in HbAA than HbAS and HbSS individuals, this may suggest an immunocompetence of the HbAA individuals.

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Details:

Authors: Marie Roura, Deborah Watson-Jones, T.M. Kahawita, Laura Ferguson, David A. Ross
Published By: Tropical Medicine and International Health
Date: October 1, 2011
Publication Link: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/291407339_Missed_opportunities_to_accessing_HIV_testing_and_antiretroviral_therapy_during_routine_patient-provider_encounters_in_Sub-Saharan_Africa_a_systematic_review_of_the_evidence